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Hello Everyone. In this blog aldehyde and ketone,carboxylic acids,haloalkane and haloarene important reactions notes provide by Aniket NCERT,this is very important for your Board examinations. Almost these questions repeated many times in your board papers. 



11th and 12th class Chemistry notes provided in this website. gkncertsolution.in

If you have any query about notes Join WhatsApp group and Facebook group

THREE PDF READ THIS 

Benzene ring pdf here


Amine Important Reaction


Aldehyde & Ketone Naming Reactions

12th Class Board Exam All Important Reaction & Conversion Handwriteen Notes by aniketncert

Himachal Pradesh Model Test & Previous Year Question Paper Computer Science Session 2020-2021


During Covid- 19 Himachal Pradesh government change the pattern of your exam. This Pattern changed to reduce the syallbus of your exam because some student confused about their examination.So HP Board Education Dharamshala gave some model test paper pattern about their examination.Model Test Paper given here........


Class- 12 Chemistry Handwritten Notes Link Given Below  Here -

Download Notes 

HP Board  Question Paper Download Link for 2017, 2015, 2014, 2013 in the PDF format specified here. HP SET Previous Years Question Paper Download PDF Link Topic Wise for Paper 1 2 3 & Model Practice MCQ Fully Solved Answers to questions have been given below. Topic Wise HP Collection Previous Years Question Paper for the last few years can be downloaded for all topics as published here.


Himachal Pradesh Model Test & Previous Year Question Paper Computer Science


Himachal Pradesh Model Test & Previous Year Question Paper Computer Science Session 2020-2021

 

Survey of Nitrogen Compounds and their Uses:-

Nitrogen compounds play an important role in many aspects of life and commercial processes, from the industrial production of fertilizers tothe building blocks of life.The nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond in N2 contains 226 kcal/mol of energy, making it one of the strongest bonds known. When nitrogengas is formed as a product from various reactions, the bond energyassociated with the N-N triple bond is released, causing the explosive
properties seen in many nitrogen compounds.
Amines

The main neutral hydride of nitrogen is ammonia (NH3 ), althoughhydrazine (N2H4 ) is also commonly used. Ammonia is more basic thanwater by 6 orders of magnitude. In solution, ammonia forms theammonium ion (NH4+ ). The pKa of ammonium chloride is 9.2.Liquid ammonia (boiling point 240 K i.e. -33 degree C) is amphiprotic (displaying either Brønsted-Lowry acidic or basic character) and forms ammonium and the less common amide ions (NH2). Ammonia has a pKa of 38, making the corresponding amide ions very strong bases.Singly, doubly, triply and quadruply substituted alkyl compounds ofammonia are called amines (four substitutions, to form commercially and biologically important quaternary amines, results in a positively charged nitrogen, and thus a water-soluble compound).

Azides

Other classes of nitrogen anions (negatively charged ions) are the poisonous azides (N3), which are linear and isoelectronic to carbon dioxide, but which bind to important iron-containing enzymes in thebody in a manner resembling cyanide. 

Nitrogen Oxides

Another molecule of the same structure is the colorless and relatively inert anesthetic gas nitrous oxide (dinitrogen monoxide, N2O), also known as laughing gas.This is one of a variety of nitrogen oxides that form a family often abbreviated as NOx . Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO), is a naturalfree radical used in signal transduction in both plants and animals.The reddish and poisonous nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) contains an unpairedelectron and is an important component of smog. Nitrogen moleculescontaining unpaired electrons show a tendency to dimerize (thuspairing the electrons), and are, in general, highly reactive. Thecorresponding acids are nitrous (HNO2 ) and nitric acid (HNO3 ), with thecorresponding salts called nitrites and nitrates. 

Nitrogen Compounds used as Explosives and Propellants

One of the earliest uses of a nitrogen compound as an explosive was potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter, used in gunpowder.This is a mixture of potassium nitrate, carbon and sulfur.When the mixture is ignited in an enclosed space, such as a gun-barrelor a firework, the nitrate ions oxidize the carbon and sulfur in a highly exothermic reaction, producing high-temperature gases very rapidly.This can propel a bullet out of a gun or cause a firework to explode.





Organic compounds with functional groups containing nitrogen-I

Boric acid cannot be titrated directly with NaOH (Sodim Hydroxide) because the end point is not sharp it undergoes excessive hydrolysis to give break H3BO3 and NaOH

Reaction:- 


H3BO3 + NaOH ------ Na(B(OH)4)------NaBO2 + 2H2O

Formic and oxalic acid are samething both having same COOH group

Oxalic acid and formic acid directly titrated with NaOH by using Acid-Base titration with the help of the phenopthalein indicator which change the color Colorless to Pink. 

       So Boric acid can titrated with the help of polyhroxy compound i.e- Catechol,Manitol. 




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In formic acid and boric acid which acid can directly titrated with sodium hydroxide

 DEODORANTS AND ANTIPERSPIRANTS
  • A Deodorant is a substance applied to the body to prevent or mask body odour due to bacterial breakdown of perspiration in the armpits, groin, feet and other parts of the body.
  • Antiperspirants are a subclass of deodorants. They prevent sweating typically by blocking sweat glands. Antiperspirants are used on a  wider range of body parts, at any place where sweat would be inconvenient or unsafe, since unwanted sweating can interfere with comfort, vision, and grip (due to slipping).
  • Deodorants allow sweating but prevent bacterial action on sweat, since human sweat only has a noticeable smell when it is decomposed by bacteria while the antiperspirants prevent sweating.




Most of the early antiperspirants were made with aluminium salts, with aluminium sulphate and alum being most commonly employed. If scented diethylene glycol ether could be added to help incorporate the perfume into the mixture giving the final product some additional odour covering capability.





ANALYSIS OF SULPHATE IN DEODORANTS AND ANTIPERSPIRANTS



Aim
:- 
To prepare phenyl benzoate from phenol and benzoyl chloride by Schotten Baumann reaction. 
Apparatus Required:- 
250 ml conical flask,beaker,volumetric flask, measuring cylinder,suction pump,buchner funnel,filter paper etc. 
Chemical required:
Phenylet, Benzyl chloride,NaOH,alcohol etc. 
Theory and principle:- 
Phenol react with an aromatic acid chloride in the presence of excess NaOH reaction at room temperature to form an ester is called as Schotten Bauman reaction. 
If Phenol is shaken with benzoyl Chloride and excess amount of sodium hydroxide solution it is benzolyted to give the ester, phenyl benzoate. The phenol is converted into ionic compound sodium phenoxide by dissolving it sodium hydroxide solution. 
 General reaction :- 
Mechanism for this reaction:- 
Procedure:- 
1- In a 100ml conical flask dissolve 2.5 gram of phenol in 35 ml of 10% sodium hydroxide solution and add 5 ml benzoyl chloride. 
2- Cork the flask properly and Shake
the mixture until the smell of benzoyl chloride disappeared. 
3- The phenyl benzoate which separate is filtered off washed with cold water dried and recrystallized from alcohol. 

Precaution-
1- Always wear gloves while handling chemicals. 
2- Wear goggles to protect Eyes 
3- Benzoyl chloride should be handled with care under a fumehood. 
4- Phenol is not only toxic but will cause serve burns
5- Use freshly prepared solution of NaOH. 
Result:- 
1- Yield of crystals =
 2- Colour of Crystal = colorless
 3- Observed melting point of crystals =
 4- Literature melting point of compound =
 

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To prepare phenyl benzoate from phenol and benzoyl chloride by Schotten Baumann reaction






Introduction: - In this blog we have studied the gaseous state.This topic is very important for your future classes i.e - Bsc,Msc and Btech.So these notes first part your class - 11.These notes is based upon Ncert Examination,CBSE,HPBOSE and other state boards.Any other notes download search in google gkncertsolution.in and youtube- aniketncert.




 Topic  Provide In These Notes 
  1. Postulates of kinetic molecular theory of gases
  2. Derivation of kinetic gas equation
  3. Gas Laws- Boyles,charge & gaylussac law.
  4. Derive gas law from kinetic molecular theory of gases
  5. Numerical related to gas law 
  6. Ideal and real gas with derivation
  7. Relation between pressure & kinetic energy of gases.
  8. Interperetation of temperature.
  9. Derivation of maxwell distribution of velocity.
  10. Maxwell Boltzmann distribution law.
  11. Question about iit,jee and neet exams.
  12. Average and most probable speed.
  13. Derivation of average speed from maxwell distribution of velocity equation.
  14. Root mean square velocity.
  15. Collison and its diameter.
  16. Collison number and frequency.
  17. Derivation of collison theory.
  18. Mean free path and its numericals.
  19. Viscosity of gases
  20. Surface tension and its derivation
  21. Vanderwaals forces and its significance.
     Total page for these notes is 100

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Refrence:-
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Class- 11 Handwritten Notes Gaseous State Pdf By Aniketncert

 Aldheyde and ketone notes pdf here by aniketncert




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Aldheyde and ketone notes pdf here by aniketncert

 Boranes


1- The Hydrides of Boron & Carbon  

2- Electron deficent compound, posses banana bond

3- Wade's Rule

4- Polyhedral Structure



Structure of diborane




Hyberdisation of diborane




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 Allen Kota Rajasthan Booklet for class 12 Chemistry!! Solutions !! Chapter- 2

G.K NCERT HANDWRITTEN NOTESSeptember 12, 20200 Comments










This chapter is based on basic knowledge of class-11.These chapter is important for your competitive exam i.e IIT,JEE,NDA AND NEET competitive exam.In this we study this chapter in previous class- 11 

IMPORTANT TOPIC THIS CHAPTER HERE---------

1) Molarity,normality,molality and strength 

2) ARREHENIOUS EQUATION 

3) COLLIGATIVE PROPERTY AND CATALYST 


Hello guys my name aniket gautam. you know by aniket ncert you can search us on Google wherein you search. Aniket so today we want to know our text 2 as a solution this chapter read in your class 11 about moles concept is also your mall concept in which you will read molarity molaity molaity solution solvent and solution solution your two type or two Made up of type, like you have solute and solvent ho news that completed, you will find notes of the solution chapter no 2 and the notes you have of the committee subject, you can see in youtube's video you can search for a med in jp singh clasere, native loading press and other as told you. 


Staet's tha very easy chapter of your class toilet and this solution belongs to your organic chemistry and is very important chapter.


 You get 2 marks in board exams or 4 marks. Maxim, who's non medical student, wants to perform jee - mains cl but he doesn't know where to prepare. Many think as we didn't read anything in class plus one, can we qualify the test or not? qualifiers, As in class plus one we didn't read, whether we could qualify the test or not, if you focus in your class restroom you can solve the maxmum time I'm promoting you notes and then you can solve your age book's exercise as you do the exercise. Because on the road map there will be a conversion of your j - mens and a conversion of the board exam. 


if you have any letter of any note, you can also gmail me. Aniket gautam four line for the rate that you see here is a simple leason. The solution on it is a simple leason, and your exact prison of prison is a 8 asking for the concept of gulaty, and sometimes a question about the 'gulti' s 


concept of gulaty, cogent, casual casual casual return, this board which Solve exam's question that is created NRT base you can also follow us in youtube channel all on facebook and also follow on whatsapp. 


                    jai hind jai bharat







In hindi medium





 नमस्कार दोस्तों मेरा नाम अनिकेत गौतम जिसे आप अनिकेत एनसीईआरटी के द्वारा जानते हैं आप हमें गूगल पर भी सर्च कर सकते हैं जिसमें आप सर्च करेंगे अनिकेत एनसीईआरटी तो आइए आज हम जो जानना चाहेंगे वह हमारा पाठ 2 है जिसमें हमने आपको सॉल्यूशन के बारे में बताया है सॉल्यूशन एक अलग चैप्टर है जो आपके कक्षा 11 में आपने पढ़ा था मोल्स कंसेप्ट के बारे में यह चैप्टर भी आपका मॉल कंसेप्ट के बारे में है 

जिसमें आप पढ़ेंगे मोलेरिटी मोलालिटी नॉर्मेलिटी सॉल्यूट सॉल्वेंट एंड सलूशन सलूशन आपका दो टाइप से बना होता है या दो प्रकार से बना होता है जैसे कि आपके सॉल्यूट हो गया और सॉल्वेंट हो गया न्यूज़ जो कंप्लीट हो गया इसमें आपको सॉल्यूशन चैप्टर के नोट्स मिल जाएंगे जो कमिटी सब्जेक्ट का चैप्टर नंबर टू है और आप इसके जो डाउट्स आपको रह जाते हैं वह आप यूट्यूब की वीडियो में देख सकते हैं जिसमें आप सर्च कर सकते हैं मेड इन जेपी सिंह क्लासिया अंकित एनसीआरटी सर्च कर सकते हैं जिसमें मैंने आपको बताया हुआ है कोलिगेटिव प्रॉपर्टी नेटिव लोडिंग प्रेशियस एंड अदर जो आपके रह गए मुलायम नॉर्मेलिटी इसे जो पहले वाला चैप्टर था वह हमारा सॉलि़ड स्टेट के था बहुत ही आसान चैप्टर था आपकी क्लास टॉयलेट का और यह सॉल्यूशन आपकी इन ऑर्गेनिक केमिस्ट्री के पास में ही आता है और बहुत ही इंपॉर्टेंट चैप्टर है इसमें आपको लिए बोर्ड एग्जाम में 2 मार्क्स का न्यूमेरिकल आ जाता है या कभी 



 4 मार्क्स का भी आ जाता है मैक्सिमम जो नॉन मेडिकल के स्टूडेंट है वह जेईई मेंस क्लियर करना चाहते हैं लेकिन उन्हें पता नहीं होता कि वह कहां से तैयारी करें कई ऐसा सोचते हैं जैसा कि क्लास प्लस वन में हमने कुछ नहीं पढ़ा क्या हम टेस्ट क्वालीफाई कर सकती हैं या नहीं बिल्कुल आप क्वालीफाई कर सकते हैं अगर आप अपने क्लास टॉयलेट में फोकस करेंगे अपना जो मैक्सिमम जो टाइम है जो मैं आपको नोट्स प्रोवाइड कर रहा हूं उसे आप पूरा सॉल्व कीजिए और उसके बाद आप अपने युग बुक्स की एक्सरसाइज को सॉल्व कीजिए जितनी एक्सरसाइज सॉल्व करेंगे आप उतना ही आपके लिए इजी रहेगा जी मेंस का टेस्ट क्लियर करना और मेरे जो आप रोडमैप्स जो 


मैंने बताया मुझे ऑर्गेनिक मिस्ट्री में उन्हें भी आप डाउनलोड कर सकते हैं क्योंकि रोड मैप में आपकी जे मेंस की कन्वर्जन भी हो जाएगी और बोर्ड एग्जाम की कन्वर्जन भी हो जाएगी अगर आपको किसी भी नोट के लेटर कोई भी प्रॉब्लम है तो आप मेरे को जीमेल भी कर सकते हैं अनिकेत गौतम फोर लाइन फोर एट दी रेट gmail.com जो आपको यहां पर दिखाई दे रहा है तू यह पर सॉल्यूशन एक आसान लेसन है और इसमें आपका जो जेल का कट्टर रहता है वह 8 मार्क्स का रह जाता है जिसमें अपने लिए गुलाटी का कंसेप्ट पूछ जाते हैं और कभी एक कंसेप्ट चल क्वेश्चन कोलिगेटिव रिलेटिव लावरिंग के बारे में पूछा जाता है तो यह जो बोर्ड एग्जाम के क्वेश्चन को सॉल्व करना है जो एनसीआरटी बेस्ड बनाया गया है


 तो आप हमें यूट्यूब चैनल में भी सब फेसबुक पर भी फॉलो कर सकते हैं और व्हाट्सएप पर भी फॉलो कर सकते हैं जय हिंद जय भारत






OTHER CHAPTER LINK HERE-----------


OTHER LINKS HERE- CLASS- 12NCERT NOTES PDF HERE VIDEO LINK


1)SOLID STATE- 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Yi000ruOdk&t=4s

2)SOLUTION-


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCMk6aFCV0A&t=2s

3)ELECTROCHEMISTRY-


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ds37FN6V8ho&t=174s

4)CHEMICAL KINETICS- 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqEhV9Fpfx0&t=13s

5)SURFACE CHEMISTRY- 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-FsD2Wiqok&t=18s

6)GENERAL PRICIPLE OF METALLURGY-


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FpVXAVV_FIg&t=63s

7)P- BLOCK HERE-


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ilWVVnznXu8&t=384s

8)-- D BLOCK HERE


8.1- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJgMfnTzKME&t=936s


8.2- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rT8U-6cLcjA

9)- CO- 0RDINATE COMPOUND HERE-


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZ_PXcUbFgY&t=59s

10) HALOALKANE AND HALOARENE -


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c82V4RPAfo8&t=93s

11)ALCHOL AND PHENOL- 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJAktn2P7og&t=25s

JEE LECTURE HERE-


https://youtu.be/TQG0HqExcFk





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https://drive.google.com/file/d/1QhYFWpH0PoJBrJsOl6V5_7hDD_ba5RF_/view?usp=drivesdk

Allen Kota Rajasthan Booklet for class 12 Chemistry!! Solutions






Notes Credit:

   

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Made in jee Aniketncert       

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Ncert Handwriting Notes Solution Exercise- Miscellaneous


Class- 12


Chapter- 3


Exercise- Ncert Miscellaneous






Introduction :


The knowledge of matrices is necessary in various branches of mathematics. Matrices are one of the most powerful tools in mathematics. This mathematical tool simplifies our work to a great extent when compared with other straight forward methods. The evolution of concept of matrices is the result of an attempt to obtain compact and simple methods of solving system of linear equations. Matrices are not only used as a representation of the coefficients in system of linear equations, but utility of matrices far exceeds that use. Matrix notation and operations are used in electronic spreadsheet programs for personal computer, which in turn is used in different areas business and science like budgeting, sales projection, cost estimation, analysing the results of an experiment etc. Also, many physical operations such as magnification, rotation and reflection through a plane can be represented mathematically by matrices. Matrices are also used in cryptography. This mathematical tool is not only used in certain branches of sciences, but also in genetics, economics, sociology, modern psychology and industrial management. In this chapter, we shall find it interesting to become acquainted with the fundamentals of matrix and matrix algebra.

गणित की विभिन्न शाखाओं में मैट्रिक्स का ज्ञान आवश्यक है।मैट्रिक्स, गणित के सबसे शक्तिशाली उपकरणों में से एक है।यह गणितीय विधि हमारे कार्य को काफी हद तक सरल बनाती है जब इसकी तुलना अन्य सीधे-सीधे विधियों से की जाती है।आव्यूहों की संकल्पना का विकास रैखिक समीकरणों की प्रणाली के समाधान की सरल और सुसम्बद्ध विधि प्राप्त करने के प्रयास का परिणाम है।आव्यूहों का प्रयोग रैखिक समीकरणों की पद्धति में गुणकों के निरूपण के रूप में ही नहीं होता, अपितु आव्यूहों की उपयोगिता तो इस प्रयोग से कहीं अधिक है।मैट्रिक्स संकेतन तथा संक्रियाओं का प्रयोग निजी कंप्यूटर के लिए इलेक्ट्रॉनिक स्प्रेडशीट प्रोग्रामों में किया जाता है, जिसका उपयोग विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में व्यवसाय तथा विज्ञान जैसे बजट, बिक्री प्रक्षेपण, लागत अनुमान, प्रयोग आदि के परिणामों का विश्लेषण करने में किया जाता हैआवर्धन, घूर्णन और परावर्तन जैसी अनेक भौतिक संक्रियाओं को गणितीय विधि द्वारा गणितीय रूप में प्रदर्शित किया जा सकता है।कूटलेखन में भी आव्यूहों का प्रयोग किया जाता है।इस गणितीय विधि का प्रयोग न केवल विज्ञान की कतिपय शाखाओं में किया जाता है, बल्कि आनुवंशिकी, अर्थशास्त्र, समाजशास्त्र, आधुनिक मनोविज्ञान तथा औद्योगिक प्रबंध में भी किया जाता है.इस अध्याय में, मैट्रिक्स बीजगणित की बुनियादी बातों से परिचित होना दिलचस्प होगा।


Matrix


Suppose we wish to express the information that Radha has 15 notebooks. We may express it as [15] with the understanding that the number inside [ ] is the number of notebooks that Radha has. Now, if we have to express that Radha has 15 notebooks and 6 pens. We may express it as [15 6] with the understanding that first number inside [ ] is the number of notebooks while the other one is the number of pens possessed by Radha. Let us now suppose that we wish to express the information of possession

मान लीजिए हम राधा की 15 नोटबुक हैं कि जानकारी व्यक्त करना चाहते हैं।हम इस समझ के साथ इसे [15] अभिव्यक्त कर सकते हैं कि भीतर की संख्या नोटबुक की संख्या है जो राधा के पास है।अब, अगर हमें यह व्यक्त करना है कि राधा में 15 नोटबुक और 6 पेन हैंहम इसे [15 6] के रूप में इस समझ के साथ व्यक्त कर सकते हैं कि अंदर की पहली संख्या नोटबुक की संख्या है जबकि दूसरी संख्या राधा के पास है।अब मान लीजिए कि हम कब्जे की जानकारी देना चाहते हैं।

Note In this chapter

1. We shall follow the notation, namely A = [aij]
m × n to indicate that A is a matrix of order m × n.

2. We shall consider only those matrices whose elements are real numbers or functions taking real values. We can also represent any point (x, y)


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Ncert Mathematics Solution Class- 12 Chapter - 3 Ncert miscellaneous