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Survey of Nitrogen Compounds and their Uses:-

Nitrogen compounds play an important role in many aspects of life and commercial processes, from the industrial production of fertilizers tothe building blocks of life.The nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond in N2 contains 226 kcal/mol of energy, making it one of the strongest bonds known. When nitrogengas is formed as a product from various reactions, the bond energyassociated with the N-N triple bond is released, causing the explosive
properties seen in many nitrogen compounds.
Amines

The main neutral hydride of nitrogen is ammonia (NH3 ), althoughhydrazine (N2H4 ) is also commonly used. Ammonia is more basic thanwater by 6 orders of magnitude. In solution, ammonia forms theammonium ion (NH4+ ). The pKa of ammonium chloride is 9.2.Liquid ammonia (boiling point 240 K i.e. -33 degree C) is amphiprotic (displaying either Brรธnsted-Lowry acidic or basic character) and forms ammonium and the less common amide ions (NH2). Ammonia has a pKa of 38, making the corresponding amide ions very strong bases.Singly, doubly, triply and quadruply substituted alkyl compounds ofammonia are called amines (four substitutions, to form commercially and biologically important quaternary amines, results in a positively charged nitrogen, and thus a water-soluble compound).

Azides

Other classes of nitrogen anions (negatively charged ions) are the poisonous azides (N3), which are linear and isoelectronic to carbon dioxide, but which bind to important iron-containing enzymes in thebody in a manner resembling cyanide. 

Nitrogen Oxides

Another molecule of the same structure is the colorless and relatively inert anesthetic gas nitrous oxide (dinitrogen monoxide, N2O), also known as laughing gas.This is one of a variety of nitrogen oxides that form a family often abbreviated as NOx . Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO), is a naturalfree radical used in signal transduction in both plants and animals.The reddish and poisonous nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) contains an unpairedelectron and is an important component of smog. Nitrogen moleculescontaining unpaired electrons show a tendency to dimerize (thuspairing the electrons), and are, in general, highly reactive. Thecorresponding acids are nitrous (HNO2 ) and nitric acid (HNO3 ), with thecorresponding salts called nitrites and nitrates. 

Nitrogen Compounds used as Explosives and Propellants

One of the earliest uses of a nitrogen compound as an explosive was potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter, used in gunpowder.This is a mixture of potassium nitrate, carbon and sulfur.When the mixture is ignited in an enclosed space, such as a gun-barrelor a firework, the nitrate ions oxidize the carbon and sulfur in a highly exothermic reaction, producing high-temperature gases very rapidly.This can propel a bullet out of a gun or cause a firework to explode.





Organic compounds with functional groups containing nitrogen-I

 

Survey of Nitrogen Compounds and their Uses:-

Nitrogen compounds play an important role in many aspects of life and commercial processes, from the industrial production of fertilizers tothe building blocks of life.The nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond in N2 contains 226 kcal/mol of energy, making it one of the strongest bonds known. When nitrogengas is formed as a product from various reactions, the bond energyassociated with the N-N triple bond is released, causing the explosive
properties seen in many nitrogen compounds.
Amines

The main neutral hydride of nitrogen is ammonia (NH3 ), althoughhydrazine (N2H4 ) is also commonly used. Ammonia is more basic thanwater by 6 orders of magnitude. In solution, ammonia forms theammonium ion (NH4+ ). The pKa of ammonium chloride is 9.2.Liquid ammonia (boiling point 240 K i.e. -33 degree C) is amphiprotic (displaying either Brรธnsted-Lowry acidic or basic character) and forms ammonium and the less common amide ions (NH2). Ammonia has a pKa of 38, making the corresponding amide ions very strong bases.Singly, doubly, triply and quadruply substituted alkyl compounds ofammonia are called amines (four substitutions, to form commercially and biologically important quaternary amines, results in a positively charged nitrogen, and thus a water-soluble compound).

Azides

Other classes of nitrogen anions (negatively charged ions) are the poisonous azides (N3), which are linear and isoelectronic to carbon dioxide, but which bind to important iron-containing enzymes in thebody in a manner resembling cyanide. 

Nitrogen Oxides

Another molecule of the same structure is the colorless and relatively inert anesthetic gas nitrous oxide (dinitrogen monoxide, N2O), also known as laughing gas.This is one of a variety of nitrogen oxides that form a family often abbreviated as NOx . Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO), is a naturalfree radical used in signal transduction in both plants and animals.The reddish and poisonous nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) contains an unpairedelectron and is an important component of smog. Nitrogen moleculescontaining unpaired electrons show a tendency to dimerize (thuspairing the electrons), and are, in general, highly reactive. Thecorresponding acids are nitrous (HNO2 ) and nitric acid (HNO3 ), with thecorresponding salts called nitrites and nitrates. 

Nitrogen Compounds used as Explosives and Propellants

One of the earliest uses of a nitrogen compound as an explosive was potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter, used in gunpowder.This is a mixture of potassium nitrate, carbon and sulfur.When the mixture is ignited in an enclosed space, such as a gun-barrelor a firework, the nitrate ions oxidize the carbon and sulfur in a highly exothermic reaction, producing high-temperature gases very rapidly.This can propel a bullet out of a gun or cause a firework to explode.





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