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हिमाचल प्रदेश में 13 अप्रैल से शुरू हो रही 10वीं और 12वीं की परीक्षा में करीब ढाई लाख विद्यार्थी परीक्षा देंगे। परीक्षाओं के लिए स्कूल शिक्षा बोर्ड ने तैयारी पूरी कर ली है।



हिमाचल प्रदेश में 13 अप्रैल से शुरू हो रही 10वीं और 12वीं की परीक्षा में करीब ढाई लाख विद्यार्थी परीक्षा देंगे। परीक्षाओं के लिए स्कूल शिक्षा बोर्ड ने तैयारी पूरी कर ली है। 10वीं की परीक्षा में 1.31 लाख, 12वीं में 1.14 लाख परीक्षार्थी बोर्ड परीक्षाओं के लिए पंजीकृत हुए हैं। सुबह के सत्र में 10वीं  के नियमित और एसओएस में पंजीकृत विद्यार्थी परीक्षा देंगे तो दूसरे सत्र में 12वीं कक्षा के नियमित और एसओएस के विद्यार्थी परीक्षा देंगे। इस बार सोशल डिस्टेंसिंग की पालना के लिए परीक्षा केंद्रों में भी वृद्धि की है, जबकि नकल रोकने के लिए भी बोर्ड प्रबंधन ने तीन चरणों में तैयारियां की हैं। इसमें जिला प्रशासन, शिक्षा विभाग और बोर्ड की ओर से गठित किए गए उड़नदस्तों के साथ परीक्षा हाल में लगे सीसीटीवी कैमरे नकल रोकने का कार्य करेंगे।


किस कक्षा में कितने विद्यार्थी
हिमाचल प्रदेश स्कूल शिक्षा बोर्ड के अनुसार 10वीं कक्षा में नियमित 1,16,954 छात्र परीक्षा में बैठेंगे, जबकि 14,931 परीक्षार्थी एसओएस में परीक्षा देंगे। इसके अलावा 12वीं की नियमित कक्षाओं से 1,00,982 परीक्षार्थी बोर्ड परीक्षा के लिए पंजीकृत हुए हैं, जबकि एसओएस में परीक्षा देने के लिए 13,944 परीक्षार्थियों ने अपना पंजीकरण करवाया है।


हिमाचल प्रदेश स्कूल शिक्षा बोर्ड की वार्षिक परीक्षाएं 13 अप्रैल से शुरू होंगी। इस दौरान 2,46,811 परीक्षार्थी 10वीं, 12वीं की नियमित और एसओएस के माध्यम से परीक्षा देंगे। बोर्ड प्रबंधन ने इन वार्षिक परीक्षाओं के लिए सभी तैयारियां पूरी कर ली हैं। - डॉ. सुरेश कुमार सोनी, अध्यक्ष, स्कूल शिक्षा बोर्ड, धर्मशाला।

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हिमाचल में कोरोना के बीच ढाई लाख विद्यार्थी देंगे 10वीं और 12वीं कक्षा की परीक्षा

What kind of compound become drugs ? 

The drug follow the Lipinski Rule (Pfizer Rule) 







1- Substance should have molecular weight of 500 or less. 

2- It should be fewer than five H-bond donating function and fewer then and ten hydrogen bond accepting function. 

3- The substance should be calculated LogP between 1 and 5.

Where LogP = Partial Coefficent (P) 

   P =  [Water/Aqueous] / [Octanol]

Lipinski Rule (Pfizer Rule)

Hello Everyone. In this blog aldehyde and ketone,carboxylic acids,haloalkane and haloarene important reactions notes provide by Aniket NCERT,this is very important for your Board examinations. Almost these questions repeated many times in your board papers. 



11th and 12th class Chemistry notes provided in this website. gkncertsolution.in

If you have any query about notes Join WhatsApp group and Facebook group

THREE PDF READ THIS 

Benzene ring pdf here


Amine Important Reaction


Aldehyde & Ketone Naming Reactions


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12th Class Board Exam All Important Reaction & Conversion Handwriteen Notes by aniketncert

Himachal Pradesh Model Test & Previous Year Question Paper Computer Science Session 2020-2021


During Covid- 19 Himachal Pradesh government change the pattern of your exam. This Pattern changed to reduce the syallbus of your exam because some student confused about their examination.So HP Board Education Dharamshala gave some model test paper pattern about their examination.Model Test Paper given here........


Class- 12 Chemistry Handwritten Notes Link Given Below  Here -

Download Notes 

HP Board  Question Paper Download Link for 2017, 2015, 2014, 2013 in the PDF format specified here. HP SET Previous Years Question Paper Download PDF Link Topic Wise for Paper 1 2 3 & Model Practice MCQ Fully Solved Answers to questions have been given below. Topic Wise HP Collection Previous Years Question Paper for the last few years can be downloaded for all topics as published here.


Himachal Pradesh Model Test & Previous Year Question Paper Computer Science


Himachal Pradesh Model Test & Previous Year Question Paper Computer Science Session 2020-2021

 

Survey of Nitrogen Compounds and their Uses:-

Nitrogen compounds play an important role in many aspects of life and commercial processes, from the industrial production of fertilizers tothe building blocks of life.The nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond in N2 contains 226 kcal/mol of energy, making it one of the strongest bonds known. When nitrogengas is formed as a product from various reactions, the bond energyassociated with the N-N triple bond is released, causing the explosive
properties seen in many nitrogen compounds.
Amines

The main neutral hydride of nitrogen is ammonia (NH3 ), althoughhydrazine (N2H4 ) is also commonly used. Ammonia is more basic thanwater by 6 orders of magnitude. In solution, ammonia forms theammonium ion (NH4+ ). The pKa of ammonium chloride is 9.2.Liquid ammonia (boiling point 240 K i.e. -33 degree C) is amphiprotic (displaying either Brønsted-Lowry acidic or basic character) and forms ammonium and the less common amide ions (NH2). Ammonia has a pKa of 38, making the corresponding amide ions very strong bases.Singly, doubly, triply and quadruply substituted alkyl compounds ofammonia are called amines (four substitutions, to form commercially and biologically important quaternary amines, results in a positively charged nitrogen, and thus a water-soluble compound).

Azides

Other classes of nitrogen anions (negatively charged ions) are the poisonous azides (N3), which are linear and isoelectronic to carbon dioxide, but which bind to important iron-containing enzymes in thebody in a manner resembling cyanide. 

Nitrogen Oxides

Another molecule of the same structure is the colorless and relatively inert anesthetic gas nitrous oxide (dinitrogen monoxide, N2O), also known as laughing gas.This is one of a variety of nitrogen oxides that form a family often abbreviated as NOx . Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO), is a naturalfree radical used in signal transduction in both plants and animals.The reddish and poisonous nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) contains an unpairedelectron and is an important component of smog. Nitrogen moleculescontaining unpaired electrons show a tendency to dimerize (thuspairing the electrons), and are, in general, highly reactive. Thecorresponding acids are nitrous (HNO2 ) and nitric acid (HNO3 ), with thecorresponding salts called nitrites and nitrates. 

Nitrogen Compounds used as Explosives and Propellants

One of the earliest uses of a nitrogen compound as an explosive was potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter, used in gunpowder.This is a mixture of potassium nitrate, carbon and sulfur.When the mixture is ignited in an enclosed space, such as a gun-barrelor a firework, the nitrate ions oxidize the carbon and sulfur in a highly exothermic reaction, producing high-temperature gases very rapidly.This can propel a bullet out of a gun or cause a firework to explode.





Organic compounds with functional groups containing nitrogen-I

Boric acid cannot be titrated directly with NaOH (Sodim Hydroxide) because the end point is not sharp it undergoes excessive hydrolysis to give break H3BO3 and NaOH

Reaction:- 


H3BO3 + NaOH ------ Na(B(OH)4)------NaBO2 + 2H2O

Formic and oxalic acid are samething both having same COOH group

Oxalic acid and formic acid directly titrated with NaOH by using Acid-Base titration with the help of the phenopthalein indicator which change the color Colorless to Pink. 

       So Boric acid can titrated with the help of polyhroxy compound i.e- Catechol,Manitol. 




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In formic acid and boric acid which acid can directly titrated with sodium hydroxide

 DEODORANTS AND ANTIPERSPIRANTS
  • A Deodorant is a substance applied to the body to prevent or mask body odour due to bacterial breakdown of perspiration in the armpits, groin, feet and other parts of the body.
  • Antiperspirants are a subclass of deodorants. They prevent sweating typically by blocking sweat glands. Antiperspirants are used on a  wider range of body parts, at any place where sweat would be inconvenient or unsafe, since unwanted sweating can interfere with comfort, vision, and grip (due to slipping).
  • Deodorants allow sweating but prevent bacterial action on sweat, since human sweat only has a noticeable smell when it is decomposed by bacteria while the antiperspirants prevent sweating.




Most of the early antiperspirants were made with aluminium salts, with aluminium sulphate and alum being most commonly employed. If scented diethylene glycol ether could be added to help incorporate the perfume into the mixture giving the final product some additional odour covering capability.





ANALYSIS OF SULPHATE IN DEODORANTS AND ANTIPERSPIRANTS



Aim
:- 
To prepare phenyl benzoate from phenol and benzoyl chloride by Schotten Baumann reaction. 
Apparatus Required:- 
250 ml conical flask,beaker,volumetric flask, measuring cylinder,suction pump,buchner funnel,filter paper etc. 
Chemical required:
Phenylet, Benzyl chloride,NaOH,alcohol etc. 
Theory and principle:- 
Phenol react with an aromatic acid chloride in the presence of excess NaOH reaction at room temperature to form an ester is called as Schotten Bauman reaction. 
If Phenol is shaken with benzoyl Chloride and excess amount of sodium hydroxide solution it is benzolyted to give the ester, phenyl benzoate. The phenol is converted into ionic compound sodium phenoxide by dissolving it sodium hydroxide solution. 
 General reaction :- 
Mechanism for this reaction:- 
Procedure:- 
1- In a 100ml conical flask dissolve 2.5 gram of phenol in 35 ml of 10% sodium hydroxide solution and add 5 ml benzoyl chloride. 
2- Cork the flask properly and Shake
the mixture until the smell of benzoyl chloride disappeared. 
3- The phenyl benzoate which separate is filtered off washed with cold water dried and recrystallized from alcohol. 

Precaution-
1- Always wear gloves while handling chemicals. 
2- Wear goggles to protect Eyes 
3- Benzoyl chloride should be handled with care under a fumehood. 
4- Phenol is not only toxic but will cause serve burns
5- Use freshly prepared solution of NaOH. 
Result:- 
1- Yield of crystals =
 2- Colour of Crystal = colorless
 3- Observed melting point of crystals =
 4- Literature melting point of compound =
 

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To prepare phenyl benzoate from phenol and benzoyl chloride by Schotten Baumann reaction






Introduction: - In this blog we have studied the gaseous state.This topic is very important for your future classes i.e - Bsc,Msc and Btech.So these notes first part your class - 11.These notes is based upon Ncert Examination,CBSE,HPBOSE and other state boards.Any other notes download search in google gkncertsolution.in and youtube- aniketncert.




 Topic  Provide In These Notes 
  1. Postulates of kinetic molecular theory of gases
  2. Derivation of kinetic gas equation
  3. Gas Laws- Boyles,charge & gaylussac law.
  4. Derive gas law from kinetic molecular theory of gases
  5. Numerical related to gas law 
  6. Ideal and real gas with derivation
  7. Relation between pressure & kinetic energy of gases.
  8. Interperetation of temperature.
  9. Derivation of maxwell distribution of velocity.
  10. Maxwell Boltzmann distribution law.
  11. Question about iit,jee and neet exams.
  12. Average and most probable speed.
  13. Derivation of average speed from maxwell distribution of velocity equation.
  14. Root mean square velocity.
  15. Collison and its diameter.
  16. Collison number and frequency.
  17. Derivation of collison theory.
  18. Mean free path and its numericals.
  19. Viscosity of gases
  20. Surface tension and its derivation
  21. Vanderwaals forces and its significance.
     Total page for these notes is 100

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Notes link here - 



Refrence:-
Written by Aniketncert




Class- 11 Handwritten Notes Gaseous State Pdf By Aniketncert